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Scientific Advantages

The Pulzar Z1 small spot homogenous Gaussian beam profile, high repetition rate and unique 213nm wavelength create a new standard in refractive surgery.

The Pulzar Z1 produces a clean smooth ablation surface on corneal tissue with no evidence of thermal effect (shown opposite: Light and Transmission Electron Micrographs from in vitro porcine studies).

The solid state 213nm laser produces a similar clinical and histopathology course to the excimer 193nm laser (Ren et al., 1993, in an in vivo rabbit study).1

The Pulzar Z1's 213nm wavelength is significantly less absorbed by 0.9% NaCl and BSS (Dair et al., 2001 - shown opposite). 2 Fluctuations in corneal hydration or environmental humidity are unlikely to have a significant effect upon the performance of the solid state laser.

The Pulzar Z1's 213nm wavelength is close to the absorption peak of collagen 3 and has low absorption in fluid. These contribution to its high corneal ablation efficiency. 4,5


1. Ren, Q., G. Simon, et al. (1993). Ultraviolet Solid-stat Laser (213nm) Photorefractive Keratectomy In Vivo Study. Ophthalmology 101: 883-889.
2. Dair,G.T., R.A. Ashman, et al. (2001). Absorption of 19 and 213-nm Laser Wavelengths in Sodium Chloride Solution and Balanced Salt Solution. Archives of Ophthalmology 119:533-537.
3. Lembares, A., Hu, X., & Kalmus, G. W. (1997). Far ultraviolet absorption spectra of porcine and human corneas. SPIE 2971: 277-786.
4. Dair, G.T., et al. (1999). Investigation of Corneal Ablation Efficiency Using Ultraviolet 213nm Solid State Laser Pulses. Investigate Ophthalmology and Vision Science. 40 (11):2752-2756.
5. Van Saarloos P.P., et al. (1990). Bovine corneal stroma ablation rate with 193nm excimer laser radiation: Quantitative measurement. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. 424-429

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